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Normalization: is a process of organizing data and minimizing redundancy

De-normalization: is a technique to move from higher to lower normal forms of database modeling in order to speed up database access.

Stored Procedure: is a named group of T-SQL statements which can be created and stored in Database as an object.

Primary Key: is a unique identifier of a row in a DB table, [it can’t be NULL]

Unique key: forces uniqueness to a respective table column, [it can be NULL]

Foreign Key: a foreign key in 1 table refers to the primary key in other table, Used to force referential integrity.

Inner join: exists in both tables

Left Outer join: all records from left side table + matched rows from right side table (totals number of rows will be same as left table)

Right Outer join: all records from right side table + matched rows from left side table (totals number of rows will be same as right table), it’s a mirror image of left outer join

Full Outer join: all records from left side table + all records from right side table, weather matched or not

Cross join: returns [left table rows * right table rows], a Cartesian product of both tables

Self join: when table joins to itself using diff aliases to avoid confusion

Union: selects only distinct records from both tables

Union all: selects all records from both tables

View: is a subset of a table, can be used to retrieve data, insert or Update data. Can contain multiple select statements inside

Trigger: A trigger is a SQL procedure that initiates an action when an event (INSERT, DELETE or UPDATE) occurs.

Cursor: is a database object used to loop trough records on row by row bases.

Index: pointers to data records, represents structure of how data get stored physically in a table

Clustered indexNon clustered index
Reorders physical data stored in tableIt contains pointers to data rows
A table can have Only 1 clustered indexA table can have one OR many  non-clustered index
Leaf nodes contains dataLeaf nodes contains reference to data

Linked server: is a concept of adding other remote server to a group to query DB’s of both servers together

Collation: set of rules that determines how data stores & compares in database

Collation types: case sensitive, accent sensitive, kana sensitive, width sensitive

Data ware housing:

  1. Record should Never delete from DB
  2. All records must be linked
  3. Once committed records should be read-only
  4. All changes made must be tracked with time

User defined function (UDF): is a bunch of T-SQL statements which accepts 0 or more parameters and returns a scalar data value or table.

DDL: data definition language – e.g. TRUNCATE command is a DDL command

DML: data manipulation language – e.g. INSERT, UPDATE & DELETE are DML commands


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